Economics - General Pharmaceuticals


How should you report the methodology, results and limitations of your economic model? One of the most commonly used approaches is the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. CHEERS was developed in 2013 (Husereau et al. 2013) and a new version has been developed this year (Husereau et al. 2022). Below are the key sections of CHEERS with the 28 key points listed below. New items not included in the 2013 are underlined below.

  • Title. Identify the study as an economic evaluation and specify the interventions being compared
  • Abstract. Provide a structured summary that highlights context, key methods, results, and alternative analyses.
  • Background. Give the context for the study, the study question, and its practical relevance for decision making in policy or practice.
  • Methods. The methods sections include: whether a health economic analysis plan was developed, study population, setting and location, comparators, perspective, time horizon, discount rate, selection of outcomes, measurement of outcomes, valuation of outcomes, measurement and valuation of resources and costs, currency and price date, rationale and description of model (report if the model is publicly available and where it can be accessed), analytics and assumptions, characterizing heterogeneity, characterizing distributional effects, characterizing uncertainty, approach to engagement with patients and others affected by the study
  • Results. Study parameters, summary of main results, effect of uncertainty, effect of engagement with patients and others affected by the study.
  • Discussion. Report key findings, limitations, ethical or equity considerations not captured, and how these could affect patients, policy, or practice.
  • Other information. Source of funding, conflicts of interest.

Some other key changes not in the list include the fact that the language was broadened to make CHEERS more widely applicable to cost-benefit/benefit-cost analysis, as well as equity or distributional cost effectiveness and items distinguishing between model based and study based measures removed.

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